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Table 2 Patient-centered outcomes chosen to evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol for multidisciplinary geriatric assessment in the emergency department

From: Study protocol for IMAGE: implementing multidisciplinary assessments for geriatric patients in an emergency department observation unit, a hybrid effectiveness/implementation study using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

OARS: (Primary outcome) An assessment of activities of daily living (functional status) commonly used in ED studies. We will obtain 3 timepoints: at the ED visit (day 0) and at days 30 and 90. A change of ≥ 3 points or death between is a significant decline.
HRQoL: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement information System (PROMIS) is endorsed by the NIH and PCORI. We will use the Global Health v1.2 (10 questions). A 3-point change is clinically meaningful.
New services: The number of new or increased outpatient services (e.g., home health therapies, referral for community interventions, referrals to hospice, equipment).
New geriatric syndromes: Number of new diagnoses of delirium, impaired cognition, fall risk, or elder mistreatment.
Geriatric clinic referral: Number of referrals to the falls prevention, polypharmacy, or geriatric clinic.
Pharmacist recommendations: The number of medication-related problems/interactions or medication changes recommended by the pharmacy team.
Positive geriatric interventions: ≥ 1 of new services, diagnoses, referrals, or pharmacist recommendations.
ED revisits and hospitalizations: Any ED revisits or unscheduled hospitalizations within 90 days.
Patient satisfaction: Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with participants.