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Table 1 Four phases of transdisciplinary implementation research with health economists

From: Moving beyond Aim Three: a need for a transdisciplinary approach to build capacity for economic evaluations in implementation science

  Development Conceptualization Implementation Translation
Goals Establish a shared understanding of the scientific or societal problem and mission of the group Develop research questions, hypotheses, and study designs that integrate and extend approaches from implementation science and health economics Launch, conduct, and refine the planned transdisciplinary research project Research findings inform policy and practice related to the implementation and sustainment of real-world programs.
Team members • Health economists
• Health services researchers
• Implementation researchers
• Community stakeholders
• Clinicians
• Intervention researchers
• Health economists
• Health services researchers
• Implementation researchers
• Advocacy groups
• Organizational leadership
• Policymakers
• Clinicians
• Intervention researchers
• Health economists
• Health services researchers
• Implementation researchers
• Community stakeholders
• Master’s level researchers (e.g., from public health, public policy, economics)
• Trainees
• Billing department
• Health economists
• Health services researchers
• Implementation researchers
• Community stakeholders
• Organizational leadership
• Policymakers
• Financing groups (e.g., insurers)
Processes • Develop shared mission and goals
• Reflect on methodological approaches in each field
• Identify and discuss the “coins of the realm” for all members of the team
• Promote psychological safety and express appreciation for the expertise of different disciplines
• Develop a shared language on terminology related to methods and outcomes
• Identify and understand the expertise of different members of the group
• Conduct regular team meetings to support integration and team learning
• Manage conflict by allowing for respectful debate across discipline
• Identify how economic evaluations can inform the financing of implementation efforts.
• Adapt the team as needed.
  1. Note: Adapted from Hall et al. (2012)