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Table 1 Research co-production traditions

From: Evaluating research co-production: protocol for the Research Quality Plus for Co-Production (RQ+ 4 Co-Pro) framework

Tradition Definition
Participatory Research In participatory research the community is part of shaping the research agenda; community members work with researchers on the research itself and on implementation of the agenda [18].
Integrated Knowledge Translation As defined on the Integrated Knowledge Translation Research Network website, ‘Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) is a model of collaborative research, where researchers work with knowledge users who identify a problem and are in a position to act on the research findings [19].’ In short, it is about doing research with the people who use it.
Engaged Scholarship Similar to the traditions above, Engaged Scholarship engages communities with researchers at multiple stages of the research process and focuses on issues that are important to a community. A community may be geographic or a community of interest (e.g., patient engagement in research that affects them) [20].
Mode 2 Research Mode 2 research is a transdisciplinary approach to research on development problems that engages both researchers and practitioners without strict hierarchy or fixed approaches in the research. The research is co-produced with people who work and live in the domain of the research [21, 22].
Community Academic Partnership Community-academic partnerships optimize the engagement of academic and community resources thereby increasing the pertinence of academic research and trust in findings in the community. Community-academic partnerships support diverse solutions to meet the needs of specific communities [23].
Research Co-Production Research co-production is an umbrella term. The term is used to describe the process of researchers working with research users to create and conduct research together. The aim of research co-production is to bring multiple perspectives into setting research questions and into decision-making about the how the research is done, so that the work reflects the needs of those who will use it [24].