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Table 3 What RQ+ 4 Co-Pro can learn, benefit from, and build on from existing frameworks, experiences, and systematic reviews [25]

From: Evaluating research co-production: protocol for the Research Quality Plus for Co-Production (RQ+ 4 Co-Pro) framework

Article/framework and theoretical lens Recommendation (from the paper cited) Lesson for RQ+ 4 Co-Pro
Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) lens [31] Accept context as inseparable component of a causal chain
Use a realist evaluation approach to highlight context in evaluations of IKT
RQ+ 4 Co-Pro identifies Contextual Factors as a framework component
Use the three Contextual Factors of the framework to categorize and study context-mechanism interactions
Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) lens [32] Equity is critical to understanding CBPR process & impact for communities, and thus, should be in the foreground of evaluations and informed by various methods and instruments RQ+ 4 Co-Pro names Sub-Dimensions that prioritize and critically interrogate equity: 2.1. Inclusion of Local Knowledge & Ways of Knowing; 2.2. Trust, Power & Mutually Beneficial Partnerships; 2.3. Intersectionality 2.4. Negative Consequences
Co-Production lens [33] Recognize social and transformational effects of co-production, including both those that occur as a part of the research process (as a result of productive interactions) and those related to research results RQ+ 4 Co-Pro sheds light on the process of engagement and utility of results, by naming both elements in specific Quality Dimensions of the framework (2 & 3), and by doing so, highlights ‘the hidden’ relational and at times transformational benefits of co-production
Patient & Public Engagement lens [34] Increase scientific rigour of framework development RQ+ 4 Co-Pro is derived from the validity and reliability tested, theory informed, RQ+ approach and framework of the International Development Research Centre
Include stakeholders in framework development RQ+ 4 Co-Pro will be field tested in the study described herein, which is structured as a stakeholder inclusive IKT effort.
Improve accessibility of frameworks (understandability/readability) Ensure simple, clear, accessible publications in various formats and a well-developed sharing strategy. This publication is one component. As results of this field test emerge, sharing and use strategies will be developed with/by the KUs on the study team.
Patient & Public Involvement lens [13] A single, one-sized fits all framework is unlikely to emerge. Instead, co-develop frameworks for local contexts, principles, and objectives. RQ+ 4 Co-Pro is a modular construct, whereby new users can adapt and re-shape the framework components to match their values and objectives, while keeping intact the three tenets that address the shortcomings of status quo deliberative, analytic, and RIA evaluation approaches when applied to co-production.
Public Involvement lens [26] Acknowledge: (1) the different rationales for public involvement, (2) that there may be negative impacts, (3) the role of power relations RQ+ 4 Co-Pro has specific Sub-Dimensions (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4) that prioritize and will help the field to learn about power dynamics and potentially negative consequences of co-production.