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Table 1 Framework of practice areas: definitions and examples

From: Health funders’ dissemination and implementation practices: results from a survey of the Ensuring Value in Research (EViR) Funders’ Forum

Definition Examples of activities in each D&I practice area
Release of findings: Diffusion, passive activities, and supportive policies to make research findings available and accessible to the general public and other audiences • Publication/presentation of findings: funder requires or financially supports awardees to release findings in academic journals or at academic conferences
• Open access: funder requires publication deposit in open access repositories; requires or provides funds for open access publication
• Direct publication by the funder
• Funder supports write-up (translation) of findings into lay language for the general public
• Funder establishes information hub or repository for evidence to support its dissemination
• Funder releases findings and information about funded projects in press briefings, media exchanges, untargeted mass mailings, untargeted presentations (e.g., meetings, webinars), leaflets, newsletters, blogs, web pages, and/or on social media
Dissemination: An active approach of spreading research findings to the target audience via determined channels using planned strategies [15] • Prepare targeted summaries, briefings, or other products to disseminate evidence to stakeholders/targeted audiences
• Educational sessions with patients, healthcare professionals, and/or policymakers
• Develop or fund development of training modules that incorporate research findings for clinicians or other targeted audience
• Develop or support development of clinical guidelines or other tools to increase knowledge or awareness of evidence in a targeted audience
• Require or encourage research awardees to develop dissemination plans and/or conduct dissemination activities as part of research awards
• Support awardees to conduct dissemination through separate funding schemes
• Support or hold conferences, workshops, or other events to disseminate findings to targeted audiences
• Funder undertakes other direct dissemination activities (directly reaches or works with stakeholders to actively reach targeted audiences).
Knowledge exchange/partnering: Actively bringing stakeholders together to share, respond to, and act upon research findings • Stimulating partnerships between researchers and knowledge-users/local organizations to support the integration of research evidence into practice
• Funder holds or supports knowledge exchange meetings/forums for researchers and decision makers
• Knowledge translation, exchange, and/or mobilization funding schemes
Implementation: Active and planned efforts to use or integrate research findings within a setting • Funding schemes to support awardees (research or other) to undertake implementation projects (e.g., clinical guideline implementation projects)
• Require or encourage research awardees to develop implementation plans and/or conduct implementation activities as part of research awards
• Direct support for implementation at implementation sites (funder hires or supports hiring an implementation expert(s) to implement intervention at new site)
• Prizes to incentivize or recognize implementation projects
Building capacity/infrastructure:
Investing in people and structures that enable/lay the groundwork for release of findings, dissemination, knowledge exchange/partnering, and/or implementation of research evidence
• Specific awards to support building capacity for dissemination or implementation activities
• Funding to develop dissemination and implementation expertise (e.g., fellows)
• Investment in networks, frameworks, tools, materials, etc. that support release of findings, dissemination, knowledge exchange/partnering, and/or implementation of research evidence
Implementation research:
Investment in and/or carrying out research on determinants/models/working methods and effectiveness of dissemination and implementation efforts or initiatives
• Funder provides support for research having the primary aim of determining whether a dissemination or implementation strategy is effective
• Funder provides support for research having the primary aim of comparing the effectiveness of proven dissemination or implementation strategies