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Table 1 Formative evaluation measures and corresponding conceptual framework domains

From: An implementation research programme to support an intravenous iron intervention for pregnant women with moderate and severe anaemia in Malawi: study protocol

Implementation outcomes Frameworks Measures Data source
Acceptability Implementation Outcomes Framework • Acceptability of anaemia screening by healthcare workers/pregnant women
• Acceptability of providing IV iron by healthcare workers/women
• Interviews with healthcare workers and pregnant women
Patient-Centred Access to Healthcare – Demand side • Cultural and social factors make it possible for pregnant women to accept these services, and their use of the services is seen as appropriate • Interviews with pregnant women
Appropriateness Implementation Outcomes Framework • Anaemia screening meets the need of healthcare workers /pregnant women
• IV iron intervention meets the need of healthcare workers/pregnant women
• Interviews with healthcare workers and pregnant women
Patient-Centred Access to Health care – Demand side • Fit between the service and pregnant women’s need, its timeliness, the amount of care spent in assessing health problems and determining the correct treatment and the technical and interpersonal quality of the services provided • Interviews with pregnant women
Adoption Implementation Outcomes Framework •Uptake of anaemia screening by healthcare workers/pregnant women
•Uptake of IV iron intervention by health care workers/pregnant women
• Health services use data
Feasibility Implementation Outcomes Framework • Facilitators for anaemia screening
• Facilitators for IV iron intervention
• Strategies to improve anaemia screening and IV iron intervention
• Interviews with healthcare workers
• Health centre observational checklist
Fidelity Implementation Outcomes Framework • Anaemia screening and IV iron intervention implemented as planned
• Strategies to support the implementation
• Interviews with healthcare workers
• Health services use data
• Observational checklist of anaemia screening and IV iron intervention
Implementation cost Implementation Outcomes framework • Cost of healthcare resources to deliver the IV iron intervention
• Cost of resources to develop and execute the implementation strategies
• Interviews with healthcare workers
• Financial records from implementation science and trial research team, and health centres
Penetration Implementation Outcomes framework • Reach of the screening programme for pregnant women
• Strategies to increase reach
• Effectiveness of follow-up measures in reaching pregnant women who needed IV iron
• Interviews with healthcare workers
• Health services use data
Sustainability Implementation Outcomes framework • Capacity to sustain anaemia screening and IV iron intervention
• Strategies to improve sustainability
• Interviews with healthcare workers
Approachability Patient-Centred Access to Health care – Demand side • Pregnant women with health needs can identify that antenatal screening and associated treatments exist, can be reached, and may have a positive impact on their health • Interviews with pregnant women
• Health services use data
Availability and accommodation Patient-Centred Access to Health care – Demand side • Health services (either the physical space or those working in health care roles) can be reached both physically and promptly • Interviews with pregnant women
• Health services observational checklist
Affordability Patient-Centred Access to Health care – Demand side • Economic capacity for pregnant women to spend resources and time to use services • Interviews with pregnant women