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Table 1 Summary of strategies and clusters, including key characteristics

From: Aligning implementation and user-centered design strategies to enhance the impact of health services: results from a concept mapping study

Cluster/strategyImportanceaFeasibilitybDisciplineAlternate UCD clusterc
1. Access resources3.42.8100% IMPn/a
 1Work with educational institutions3.23.1IMP
 19Fund and contract for the clinical innovation3.72.0IMP
 44Mandate change3.22.8IMP
 52Develop resource sharing agreements3.12.9IMP
 60Access new funding3.82.2IMP
 62Use train-the-trainer strategies3.43.5IMP
2. Promote leadership and collaboration3.93.480% IMP
20% UCD
n/a
 4Identify and prepare champions4.24.0IMP
 5Recruit, design, and train for leadership4.13.7IMP
 13Build a coalition4.13.7IMP
 22Obtain formal commitments3.23.5IMP
 9Build a user-centered organizational culture3.72.3UCD
3. Incentivize the innovation2.91.8100% IMPn/a
 2Place innovation on fee for service lists/formularies3.52.2IMP
 23Increase demand2.81.9IMP
 33Change accreditation or membership requirements2.41.6IMP
 35Alter patient/consumer fees2.91.7IMP
 37Alter incentive/allowance structures3.52.2IMP
 50Create or change credentialing and/or licensure standards2.61.5IMP
4. Monitor change3.73.2100% IMPn/a
 8Change record systems3.42.5IMP
 12Purposefully reexamine the implementation4.14.0IMP
 20Develop and implement tools for quality monitoring3.83.1IMP
 45Audit and provide feedback3.93.6IMP
 48Use data experts3.03.3IMP
 55Facilitate relay of clinical data to providers3.82.9IMP
 65Develop and organize quality monitoring systems3.63.2IMP
5. Support providers3.43.4100% IMPn/a
 16Remind clinicians2.83.6IMP
 21Conduct ongoing training3.73.6IMP
 39Centralize technical assistance3.13.0IMP
 40Provide ongoing consultation3.73.7IMP
 47Provide local technical assistance3.63.3IMP
6. Facilitate change4.03.8100% IMPn/a
 28Tailor strategies4.33.9IMP
 36Facilitation3.73.7IMP7
 42Organize clinician implementation team meetings3.73.6IMP
 53Develop educational materials3.64.4IMP
 63Promote adaptability4.43.7IMP
7. Develop and test solutions rapidly3.34.0100% UCD 
 3Use generative object-based techniques3.03.9UCD6
 27Engage in cycles of rapid prototyping3.93.9UCD6
 30Conduct focus groups about user perspectives3.44.5UCD9
 31Use associative object-based techniques2.43.8UCD9
 34Engage in live prototyping3.73.6UCD6
 49Conduct interviews about user perspectives3.74.5UCD9
 58Develop personas and schemas2.93.9UCD9
8. Understand systems and context3.84.083% UCD
17% IMP
 
 7Define work flows3.84.2UCD8
 11Engage in iterative development4.53.9UCD7
 18Apply process maps to systems-level behavior3.13.5UCD8
 38Conduct observational field visits4.34.1UCD9
 43Prepare and present user research reports3.34.3UCD8
 56Assess for readiness and identify barriers and facilitators3.94.1IMP8
9. Consider user needs and experiences3.13.8100% UCD 
 17Conduct experience sampling2.73.3UCD9
 24Conduct usability tests4.04.2UCD6
 25Apply task analysis to user behavior3.33.9UCD9
 29Develop a user research plan3.74.1UCD6
 32Conduct heuristic evaluation2.43.7UCD6
 46Examine automatically generated data3.43.8UCD7
 51Conduct artifact analysis2.83.6UCD9
 54Conduct competitive user experience research3.03.6UCD9
 57Develop experience models3.13.7UCD9
 64Collect quantitative survey data on potential users3.14.1UCD9
 66Use dialogic object-based techniques2.83.7UCD9
10. Co-design solutions4.04.075% UCD
25% IMP
 
 6Conduct co-creation sessions4.13.9UCD6
 14Recruit potential users4.14.1UCD9
 15Conduct design charrette sessions with stakeholders3.13.6UCD6
 26Conduct interpretation sessions with stakeholders3.74.0UCD8
 59Design in teams3.94.1UCD7
 61Define target users and their needs4.54.4UCD6
 10Conduct local consensus discussions4.23.8IMP8
 41Involve patients/consumers and family members4.24.0IMP8
  1. Strategies are organized by discipline (IMP implementation, UCD user-centered design) within each cluster
  2. aRating scale ranged from 1 (relatively unimportant) to 5 (extremely important)
  3. bRating scale ranged from 1 (not at all feasible) to 5 (extremely feasible)
  4. cFor clusters dominated by UCD strategies, indicates the alternate cluster in which a given strategy was located based on a nine-cluster solution from sorting responses of UCD expert participants (valid response n = 21); those clusters (detailed in Additional file 2) are as follows: 6. Develop and test solutions rapidly; 7. Unnamed new cluster; 8. Understand systems and context; and 9. Consider user needs and experiences