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Table 1 Outline of phases of intervention development and relationship to processes followed in Intervention Mapping and the Behavior Change Wheel

From: Development of a theory-based video-game intervention to increase advance care planning conversations by healthcare providers

Phase of Intervention Development Intervention Mapping [13] Behavior Change Wheel [9]
Phase 1 – Understand the behavior and specify the target for change Step 1: Logic model of the problem
• Establish and work with a planning group
• Conduct a needs assessment
• Describe the context for the intervention including the population, setting, and community
• State program goals
Stage 1: Understand the behavior
1. Define the problem in behavioral terms
2. Select target behavior
3. Specify target behavior
4. Identify what needs to change
  Step 2: Program outcomes and objectives – logic model of change
• State expected outcomes for behavior and environment
• Specify performance objectives for behavioral and environmental outcomes
• Select determinants for behavioral and environmental outcomes
• Construct matrices of change objectives
• Create a logic model of change
Phase 2 – Identify theoretical basis for proposed behavior change and select relevant behavior change techniques Step 3: Program design
• Generate program themes, components, scope, and sequence
• Choose theory and evidence-based change methods
• Select or design practical applications to deliver change methods
Stage 2: Identify intervention options
1. Intervention functions
2. Policy categories
Stage 3: Identify content and implementation options
3. Behavior change techniques
Phase 3 – Identify mode of delivery, choose design principles to guide selection of intervention components, and develop the intervention. Step 4: Program production
• Prepare plans for program materials
• Draft messages, materials, and protocols
• Pre-test, refine, and produce materials
Stage 3: Identify content and implementation options
4. Mode of delivery
Phase 4 – Assess the fidelity of intervention delivery Step 5: Program implementation plan
• Identify potential program users
• State outcomes and performance objectives for program use
• Construct matrices of change objectives for program use
• Design implementation interventions
Phase 5 – Assess intervention efficacy and test mediators and moderators of the outcome. Step 6: Evaluation plan
• Write effect and process evaluation questions
• Develop indicators and measures for assessment
• Specify the evaluation design
• Complete the evaluation plan