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Table 1 Type of interventions featured in the articles included in the scoping review, grouped according to the EPOC taxonomy

From: Framework for identification and measurement of spillover effects in policy implementation: intended non-intended targeted non-targeted spillovers (INTENTS)

EPOC taxonomy Number of papers Types of interventions featured in articles
Financial arrangements
Changes in how funds are collected, insurance schemes, how services are purchased, and the use of targeted financial incentives or disincentives
57 Hospital readmission reduction programme, results-based financing, provider payment models or fees, disease-specific financial incentive programmes, financial interventions, insurance coverage expansion, changes in healthcare prices or coverage for patients
Implementation strategies
Interventions designed to bring about changes in healthcare organisations, the behaviour of healthcare professionals, or the use of health services by healthcare recipientsa
27 Capability-enhancing interventions (training, health promotion, health communication)
Governance arrangements
Rules or processes that affect the way in which powers are exercised, particularly with regard to authority, accountability, openness, participation, and coherence
21 Prescribing recommendations/guidelines or changes to prescription drugs lists, extended access to treatment, gatekeeping/managed care, treatment guidelines, public reporting of hospital output/quality information, extended healthcare benefits for specific populations
Delivery arrangements
Changes in how, when, and where healthcare is organised and delivered and who delivers healthcare.
17 Closure/opening of hospitals/wards or drug stores, e-health technology, provider/caregiver training, changes in the care process, screening programmes, public health measures (bednets, purified water, living conditions, etc.), clinical and similar interventions
  1. aWe have been generous in our interpretation of studies in line with the EPOC taxonomy but recognise that many of these are not clearly defined strategies