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Table 3 Classes of spillovers and interventions examined in the reviewed literature

From: Framework for identification and measurement of spillover effects in policy implementation: intended non-intended targeted non-targeted spillovers (INTENTS)

Classes of spilloversa Number of papersa Underlying intervention groups observed in the literature as introduced in Table 2a)
Within-unit spillover effect
Non-intended effect on targeted unitb)
55 .Financial arrangements (25)
.Governance arrangements (12)
.Implementation strategies (11)
.Delivery arrangements (7)
Diagonal spillover effect
Non-intended effect on non-targeted unitb)
38 .Financial arrangements (26)
.Governance arrangements (6)
.Implementation strategies (3)
.Delivery arrangements (3)
Between-units spillover effect
Intended effect on non-targeted unitc)
36 .Implementation strategies (15)
.Financial arrangements (10)
.Delivery arrangements (8)
.Governance arrangements (3)
  1. a Seven articles featured spillover effects classified into two classes; hence, the 129 spillover effects classified in spite of 122 articles reviewed
  2. b Articles included in this class discussed spillovers in the form of effects different from those initially intended for the intervention, extending either on the same target unit (i.e. treatment) or to the non-targeted unit (i.e. control)
  3. c Articles included in this class discussed spillovers in the form of main intended effects of the intervention extending beyond the unit initially targeted (i.e. the treatment unit)