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Table 6 Examples of health system hierarchical levels to be considered in the framework

From: Framework for identification and measurement of spillover effects in policy implementation: intended non-intended targeted non-targeted spillovers (INTENTS)

Health system level Description
Government authorities, regulators, administrative authorities, policymakers Central government, legislators, regions, counties, districts, local authorities, etc.
Payers Health insurance, health funds, social security, government authorities
Suppliers Pharma companies, manufacturers of medical devices and medical supplies, labs, etc.
Healthcare organisations GP practice, healthcare organisation, ambulatory, hospital, pharmacy, nursing homes
Individual healthcare providers Independent physiotherapists, independent dentists, GPs, clinicians, specialists, nurses, support staff, etc.
Individuals/citizens/patients Including individual patients and their relatives, friends, social networks, other patients and their families
  1. Source: Gilson [48], Savedoff and Hussman [49]